Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K and protein kinase B AKT are involved in major pro-survival signaling pathways in cancer cells. While excessive proliferation and survival of aberrant cells is suppressed in normal homeostasis, in tumor cells, this is overridden by the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and other cell death-associated factors. In particular, AKT regulates cell survival, metabolism, invasion and metastasis, and is also pivotal role in antiapoptotic and antiproliferative signaling in response to essential cytokines. It is known that the BCL-2 family of proteins regulates apoptosis through modulating mitochondrial permeability 2. AKT can also inhibit p53, which is a tumor suppressor protein that induces apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest 3. Consequently, drugs designed to target AKT have become an important and viable approach in the development of cancer therapeutics with a number of AKT inhibitors already being used in clinical trials.
Topic: For Arimidex (Anastrozole) users, new, past, and ongoing
Quinine - Safe In Breastfeeding
Therapeutic blood plasma concentrations of anti-malarial drugs are essential for successful treatment. Pharmacokinetics of pharmaceutical compounds are dependent of adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. ATP binding cassette ABC transport proteins are particularly involved in drug deposition, as they are located at membranes of many uptake and excretory organs and at protective barriers, where they export endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including pharmaceuticals. In this study, a panel of well-established anti-malarial drugs which may affect drug plasma concentrations was tested for interactions with human ABC transport proteins. The interaction of chloroquine, quinine, artemisinin, mefloquine, lumefantrine, atovaquone, dihydroartemisinin and proguanil, with transport activity of P-glycoprotein P-gp , breast cancer resistance protein BCRP , bile salt export pump BSEP and multidrug resistance-associated proteins MRP 1—4 were analysed. The effect of the anti-malarials on the ATP-dependent uptake of radio-labelled substrates was measured in membrane vesicles isolated from HEK cells overexpressing the ABC transport proteins.
Anti-malaria Drug Quinine Heads the List of Breast Cancer Clinical Trials
Do not start, stop, or change the dose of any drug your child takes without checking with the doctor. All drugs may cause side effects. However, many people have no side effects or only have minor side effects. These are not all of the side effects that may occur. Read all information given to you.
Quinine is the generic form of the brand-name drug qualaquin, a medication used to treat uncomplicated P. Malaria is a disease caused by parasites that typically enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Do not purchase quinine on the Internet or from vendors outside of the United States. Using this medication improperly or without the advice of a doctor can result in life-threatening side effects. Quinine can cause serious side effects on your heart, kidneys, or blood cells.