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List of Japanese-run internment camps during World War II
POW | All About War Movies
It was unusual in that it housed both Allied prisoners of war POWs and civilian internees. The camp, which operated from March until the liberation of the camp in September , was housed in buildings that were originally British Indian Army barracks. The original area was extended by the Japanese, until it covered about 50 acres 20 hectares. It had a maximum population of some 3, prisoners. Life in the camp was harsh, with POWs and internees alike forced to endure food shortages , disease and sickness for which scant medicine was made available, forced labour , brutal treatment, and lack of adequate clothing and living quarters.
A requirement to establish a definitive list of British subjects interned as civilians by the Japanese in Concentration Camps some euphemistically called Civil Assembly Centres by Tokyo has shown that no comprehensive list appears to be in existence. The accepted military figures appear to be about 52, British POWs of whom 37, survived captivity; this does not include members of the Australian, New Zealand or Indian Armed forces. These records however to some extent complicate the issue of the civilians interned, because the 3, members of the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, the Federated Malay States Volunteer Force and the Straits Settlements Volunteer Forces were considered civilians when records were compiled in by the then War Office although reclassified as military in the s and now accepted as such. Similarly the members of the British Merchant Navy seem to have been considered military at some time and civilian at others, without any perceivable pattern, some of them are included with the military in WO which is 58, cards one for each person recorded but mostly written in classical Japanese. The WO Cards do not have all the military and also contain some civilians especially some Merchant Seaman and passengers on ships that were sunk.
Total Allied civilian internees of the Japanese estimated to be , 50, men, 41, women, 40, children ; of these, there were 15, deaths Bernice Archer, The Internment of Western Civilians Under the Japanese , A total of Allied civilians, including 76 from internment camps, left Japan aboard the first exchange ship, the Asama Maru , on June 17, On July 30, , 60 British internees left on the 2nd exchange ship, the Tatsuta Maru. A group of 73 internees boarded the 3rd exchange ship, the Teia Maru , on Sept.